Grammar Review

To Be Verb


Today we will talk about PRONOUNS and the verb (to be). It is important to understand perfectly these topics because it will help us in the future to understand other more complex structures.

Personal Pronouns :


Singular: I , You, He, She,It                                  Plural: We, you, they

Verb to be ( am / is / are )

the Present Simple Tense


(Positive form) Pronouns with the verb to be (am/is/are) and its Contractions


“Subject” Pronouns Verb (To be) Contraction
1St I am I’m
2nd you are you’re
3rd He/She/It Is he’s / she’s / it’s
PLURAL
1st We are we’re
2nd You you’ re
3rd They

they’re

Structure Form:


Example:

I am a student.                                                      You are happy.

He is John.                                                               She is in the car.

It is a hot day.                                                         We are David’s brothers.

You are from Ecuador.                                       They are nurses.

Now let’s practice with some exercise:

click here

http://www.english-4u.de/am_is_are_ex1.htm

(Negative form) Pronouns with the verb to be (am/is/are) and its Contractions


“Subject” Pronouns Verb(To be) Contraction
1St I am + not I’m not
2nd you are + not you’re not / you aren’t
3rd He/She/It is + not he’s / she’s / it’s + notorhe/she/it + isn’t
PLURAL
1st We Are +not we’re not / we aren’t
2nd You you’ re not / you aren’t
3rd They they’re not / they aren’t

Structure Form:


Example:

Audio negative statements

I am not a student.                                                      You are not happy.

He is not John.                                                               She is not in the car.

It is not a hot day.                                                         We are not David’s brothers.

You are not from Ecuador.                                       They are not nurses.

(Questions)

Verb (to be) Subject Pronoun Complement(optional)
1St Am I a good student?
2nd Are you married?
3rd Is he/she/it your friend?
PLURAL
1st Are we ready?
2nd you at home
3rd they tired?

Structure Form:


Example:

Am I a student?                                                      Are you happy?

Is he John? Is it in the car?

Is it a hot day? Are we David’s brothers?

Are you from Ecuador? Are they nurses?


Short answers (Yes and no answers)

Positive Negative
1St Yes, I am No. I’m not
2nd Yes, you are No, you aren’t
3rd Yes, he is No, he isn’t / No, he’s notNo, she isn’t / No, she’s notNo, it isn’t/ No, it’s not
PLURAL
1st Yes, we are No, we’re not / No, we aren’t
2nd Yes, you are No, you’re not / No, you aren’t
3rd Yes, they are No, they’re not / No, they aren’t

Important!

  • Remember in English we must always put the personal pronoun before the subject.  To make an affirmative sentence we will follow this form.

(SUBJECT + VERB + COMPLEMENT)

Example :
– Es bonita.   –>    In spanish it can be correct.
– Is pretty (INCORRECTO)       –> It is not correct in English
– She is pretty  –>  (Correct)

  • Do not use the verb to be in every sentence. It only means  ser o estar. Sometimes we thing we always must write am, is, are in the sentences but it is according to action we want to describe.

Example:

– Juega futbol.
– He is play futbol –> It is not correct in English –> The subject does not perform 2 actions.
– He plays football (Correct)

Now work with these exercises.  Look at these examples:

click here:

Verb to be, posted by Elizabeth

TO BE, JOBS for young learners, posted by Elizabeth

Verb to be (am, is, are), posted by Elizabeth


Other Verbs


The Present Simple Tense:

A. Use:

1. The simple present is used to describe a present situation.

I work in Ecuador. (I work now and will work for the future).

2. The simple present is used to indicate habitual actions or events that regularly happens.

She often goes to work late.

The child usually drink milk before going to bed.

3. The simple present is used to express general truths such as scientific fact.

Water freezes at 0 C. (A scientific fact)

Water boils at 100 C.

4. The simple present is also used in expressions like “I think, I know, I see, etc.”

“I think” ,” I believe”

I think you are a hardworking student. I know you’re right.

B. STRUCTURE:

Structure / form:

The forms (or conjugations) of the present simple tense are two. Remember that with the verb to be there are three forms (am, is, are). To form the present simple conjugations we first need to have the verb. In this example we will use the verb to play.

Verb to play
One conjugation is formed by eliminating the “to” — > play
The other conjugation is formed by adding “s” or “es”. —>plays

So you can now form the conjugations of any verb in the present simple!
to work: work / works
to study: study / studies
to watch : watch / watches 

Now we learned to conjugate and form the verbs. Let’s learn what pronouns go with the correct form.

He / she / it ————> with the “s” form (plays)
I / you / we / you / they ———-> normal form without the “to” (play)

Affirmative Statements:

Structure Form:


Positive Structure:

Spelling rules for adding s in the third person singular

  • Add s to verbs ending in a consonant or a vowel e in the third person singular.

Verbs ending in y

The English letters a, e, i, o and u are generally referred to as vowels. The other English letters are generally referred to as consonants.

  • When a verb ends in y immediately preceded by a consonant, the y is changed to ie before the ending s is added. In each of the following examples, the consonant immediately preceding the final y is underlined.

When a verb ends in y immediately preceded by a consonant, the y is changed to ie before the ending s is added. In each of the following examples, the consonant immediately preceding the final y is underlined.

Bare Infinitive Third Person Singular
study studies
fly flies
carry carries


However, when a verb ends in y immediately preceded by a vowel, the y is not changed before the ending s is added. In each of the following examples, the vowel immediately preceding the final y is underlined.

Bare Infinitive Third Person Singular
say says
enjoy enjoys
buy buys

See Exercise 3.

Verbs ending in o

When a verb ends in o, the letter e is added before the s ending. For example:

Bare Infinitive

Third Person Singular

do

does

echo

echoes

go

goes

 

Verbs ending in ch, s, sh, x or z

When a verb ends in a sibilant sound such as ch, s, sh, x or z, the letter e is added before the s ending. For example:

Bare Infinitive

Third Person Singular

pass

passes

push

pushes

watch

watches

fix

fixes

buzz

buzzes

 

See Exercise 4.

  • Note: The verb have changes to has

I                                                             He

You   have She   has

They                                                     It

Important!

Common errors:
Remember that when we use “other verbs” we DO NOT use the verb to be:
– I’m have two sisters (INCORRECT) —      I have two sisters       (Correct)
– She is plays in the park (INCORRECT) —–     She plays in the park        (Correct)


Negative Statements:

Structure Form:



Forma negativa del Simple Present: Sujeto+Do not o don’t/does not o doesn’t +verbo de la acción en infinitivo+ Complementos.

Ej.: John does not/doesn’t wash the dishes every day.

Structure Form:

Forma interrogativa del Simple Present: Do/does+ sujeto+ verbo de la acción en infinitivo+ Complementos.

Ej.: Does John wash the dishes every day?

Para la negación y la interrogación de las frases con este tiempo verbal, necesitamos el verbo auxiliar (to) do.

Structure / form:The forms (or conjugations) of the present simple tense are two. Remember that with the verb to be there are three forms (am, is, are). To form the present simple conjugations we first need to have the verb. In this example we will use the verb to play.Verb to play
One conjugation is formed by eliminating the “to” — > play
The other conjugation is formed by adding “s” or “es”. —>plays
So you can now form the conjugations of any verb in the present simple!
– to work: work / works
– to study: study / studies
– to watch : watch / watches
– to bring : bring / brings
– to get : get / gets
– to dance: dance / dances

Note : With the verb to have the conjugations are —> have / has (NOT haves)

Now we learned to conjugate and form the verbs. Let’s learn what pronouns go with the correct form.

He / she / it ————> with the “s” form (plays)
I / you / we / you / they ———-> normal form without the “to” (play)

The positive form of the simple present tense

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